Check out the nice article that the GLBRC Communications folks put together regarding a recent Gratton Lab paper about ecosystem service tradeoffs that come with working perennial energy crops into agricultural landscapes.
Two papers, written by Gratton lab members, were recently accepted. Both are modeling papers that use GIS to examine the causes and consequences of land-use change.
In Tim and Claudio’s paper, they model tradeoffs of multiple ecosystem services (e.g., carbon sequestration, nitrous oxide emissions, pest control, and pollination) from converting annual cropping systems to perennial energy crops (“Ecosystem-service tradeoffs associated with switching from annual to perennial energy crops in riparian zones of the US Midwest”- T. D. Meehan, C. Gratton, E. Diehl, N. D. Hunt, D. F. Mooney, S. J. Ventura, B. L. Barham, and R. D. Jackson). In general, they found that switching from continuous corn to perennial systems incurred a cost (decreased annual income) but the benefits of switching included increased annual energy provisioning, decreased annual phosphorous loading to surface water, increased below-ground carbon sequestration, decreased annual nitrous oxide emissions, increased pollinator abundance and increased pest control potential. The “benefit-cost ratios” varied spatially and by watersheds, suggesting the presence of hotspots “where increases in multiple ecosystem services would come at lower-than-average opportunity costs”. The authors discuss the challenges of expanding to perennial energy crops systems and maintaining sustainable agricultural landscapes.
In Amin’s paper, he compares different modeling techniques to accurately describe and predict the boundary and shape of urban expansion (“Predicting the expansion of an urban boundary using spatial logistic regression and hybrid raster–vector routines with remote sensing and GIS”- A. Tayyebi, P.C. Perry and A. H. Tayyebi). He examines how biophysical factors (e.g. distance to streams, urban areas, and roads, elevation, slope) influence the rate at which urban boundaries expand over time. He used satellite images of Las Vegas, NV, collected in 1990, 2000, and 2010 to build, test, and validate the models. He discusses how these techniques can be used to plan for future urban boundary expansions in other locations.
The snow is slowly but surely melting and we are starting to think about the upcoming field season. Here in the Gratton Lab, we do most of our field work in agricultural settings. One crop we work in is corn. For those of you who didn’t grow up on a farm, you might not have had the opportunity to run through a corn field. We want to share that experience with you. This short video gives you a glimpse into a day in the field with the Gratton Lab.
Join us on Friday, October 26th to hear Claudio’s talk “Sustainable bio-energy landscapes: can we balance our needs for biodiversity and production?”
2 – 3pm, 184 Russell Labs (1630 Linden Drive), as part of the Department of Forest & Wildlife Ecology seminar series.
Here is a nice article from Grow magazine describing our work on sustainable bioenergy.
Read a Columbus Dispatch article featuring Tim’s and Claudio’s forecasts for how bird diversity might be affected by bioenergy production in the Midwest.
Demand for fossil fuels is increasing globally. The United States is pursuing an energy policy that aims to reduce our dependence on fossil fuels by expanding renewable energy sources. One important part of this effort is the use of bioenergy crops to produce heat, electricity, and transportation fuel. Meeting energy demands could have big implications for agricultural land use. Not only will land used to grow fuel not be available for growing food, but the choice of energy crop will have large consequences in the environment.
Few studies have considered the effects of bioenergy crops on biodiversity. Bioenergy crops can be broadly categorized as “high intensity, low diversity” (HILD, corn and soybean) or “low intensity, high diversity (LIHD, hay fields and prairies). HILD crops are characterized by high fertilizer and pesticide inputs and are generally annually replanted. LIHD require fewer inputs, are more perennial, and are composed of a mix of several different plant species.
The number of plant species in a field can influence the number of species on a landscape. In general, HILD crops are expected to support fewer species than LIHD crops. The number of bird species is often considered to be a good indicator of the number of animal species in a community. An active group of professional and amateur bird watchers involved with the North American Breeding Bird Survey have produced useful data on the number of bird species in landscapes across North America. Using this data, Meehan et al. developed a model to predict the number of bird species in different future land-use scenarios. Specifically, they contrasted two extremes scenarios for bioenergy crops on marginal lands in the Upper Midwest: (1) changing 9.5 million ha of LIHD into HILD and (2) changing 8.3 million ha of HILD into LIHD. These two scenarios represent opposite ends of the spectrum, moving to mostly perennial (LIHD) or mostly annual (HILD) bioenergy crops on marginal lands.
Their model predicted that changing to a more perennial landscape (hay fields and prairies that are not re-planted every year) would result in more species of birds (up to 200% more) in the landscape while a more annual landscape (corn and soybeans fields) would result in fewer species of birds (up to 65% fewer) in the landscape. This is especially the case for rare grassland birds of particular conservation interest. Which crops are used for producing bioenergy will have consequences for many aspects of the environment, including the number of bird species. It is important to consider all of the costs and benefits of our energy policies.